Charts, Graphs, and Diagrams
Learn how to read data and directions shown in charts, graphs, and diagrams. Examples show how data and directions relate to everyday events like finding rides on the playground, planning a fire escape route, comparing a team's win-loss records, using a TV schedule, or building a model. Illustrates that students come in contact with charts, graphs, and diagrams in daily life.
Data and directions relate to everyday events and students come in contact with charts, graphs and diagrams all the time. That's why it's important to know how to read data and directions shown in charts, graphs and diagrams.
- Students will know the three types of graphs and how to use them.
- A bar graph is a graph that uses bars to show the amount of each item in a group or category. Bar graphs are pictures that are easily read which allow a person to quickly compare the amount of an object in relation to the amount of another object (the taller the bar, the more of the item.) A bar graph makes this difference in quantities clear.
- A line graph shows a change over time. A line graph also shows the connection between two or more things, like the connection between age and height. Using a line graph, one can compare things as they were and as they are now. A line graph is made by plotting coordinates and connecting these points.
- A pie graph is a circular graph that shows how much a part is of a whole. A pie graph is made by dividing a circle into parts that represent the quantity of a group. Each portion of the circle represents a fraction or percentage of the whole and shows how much of the whole is composed of the part.
- Students will understand a chart and know how to use one. A chart is an orderly model that organizes and explains information. Some charts organize data using pictures, but tables are more commonly used. Tables arrange information in columns and rows, which divide and separate the data.
- Students will explain what a diagram is and know how to use one. A diagram is similar to a picture chart. It uses pictures to explain important details, show the layout of an area, and show specific routes. For example, one can use instructions in the form of a diagram to build a model.
- Students will realize the importance of charts, graphs, and diagrams to our world. These tools organize the information so that one can easily gain a better understanding about the information important to everyday life.
- Before viewing the video
- Anticipatory Set: Ask children to name some things in the room that they use everyday, for example, pencils, chairs, and tables. Have the students help in the making of a math picture (a bar graph) of these things. Have one child count the number of tables and record this data. Do the same with chairs. Have the children at each table count their total number of pencils. Write the totals on the board and, while the children are watching, add them up for a grand total. Make a bar graph, putting the numerals from one to twenty-five (or total number of pencils) on the left side, starting with one and counting up. Across the bottom, put pictures of a table, a chair, and a pencil. Show the children how to mark the graph and color each bar differently.
- After viewing the video
- The Bar Graph: Stop the video briefly and review the bar graph of the playground. Ask the children if it is similar to their bar graph. Ask questions regarding the class graph that are similar to those asked on the video. Decide on another bar graph to make about things in the classroom and make copies of it to be sent home for the children to use to explain the graph to their parents. Making a bar graph of pets as shown in the video would be another good one to do.
- The Line Graph: Remind the children that a line graph shows changes over time and helps show how things are related to one another. Plant some bean seeds. On the left side of the line graph, put the numerals one through twenty (for the days), starting at the bottom. Across the bottom draw a picture of the following: a pot of soil, a tiny green sprout, a bean plant, and a large bean plant. The children must keep track of how many days it takes for each stage of the plant to develop. This shows how a bean develops over time. The children may need to add more days to their graphs.
- The Pie Graph: Make a pie graph of hair colors in the classroom. Have the children draw pictures of themselves with the appropriate hair color. Cut out the pictures and group them according to hair color. Count the total number of children in the classroom. Make a pie graph which shows the percentage of each hair color in the class.
- Charts: Send a note home with several examples of charts and ask parents to help the children find charts in the newspaper and old magazines to bring to school. Paste them on a large poster board in the classroom to observe the many kinds of charts that exist.