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The Digestive and Excretory Systems

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The Digestive and Excretory Systems

What does filling a car with fuel have in common with your body? Using tangible examples, students will understand the importance and purpose of the Digestive and Excretory systems. Follow the path of food and see how each organ of the digestive system contributes to the process. Discover the three systems involved in excreting wastes from your body, right down to the cellular level. Kids will also learn what they can do to keep do to keep their amazing digestive and excretory systems healthy.

Digestion breaks down all the food we eat so the important nutrients and molecules can be absorbed into our circulatory system. All of our cells use the nutrients, and as a part of working, create waste that our body systems eliminate. Three very important systems remove waste from our cells. Learn about skin, the respiratory system and why the urinary system is our most important excretory system!

  1. Students will understand that tissues make up different systems in our bodies that perform different functions for our bodies to live.
  2. Students will learn the parts of our digestive and execretory systems and how they work together to get nutrients from our food to all the cells of our bodies and then eliminate the waste created from cells working.
  3. Students will understand that the digestive system is responsible for taking the nutrients in food and getting them to all the parts of the body for energy, repair and growth.
    1. The major organs of the digestive system are: esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, liver, pancreas and gall bladder.
    2. Physical and chemical digestion turn food into nutrients.
      i) Food is broken into small pieces in our mouths by chewing. Specialized teeth tear and grind food in our mouths: canines, incisors, molars.
      ii) Enzymes and mucus secreted by our salivary glands break food into nutrients.
      iii)Nutrients in our foods are proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals and water.
    3. Peristalsis is the action of muscles contracting in the esophagus and intestines that push food through the digestive system.
    4. The pancreas secretes pancreatic juice that reduces acid, digests carbohydrates into sugar, protein into amino acids and fats into fatty acids and glycerol.
    5. The liver secretes bile that is stored in the gallbladder and is used to digest fats.
    6. Food that can not be digested is passed into the large intestine and rectum and is eliminated as feces.
  4. Students will understand that exercise, drinking water and choosing nutritious foods help the digestive system stay healthy.
    1. 26-30 grams of fiber should be eaten everyday.
  5. Students will understand the the execretory system gets rid of waste produced by cells working. The skin, the respiratory system and the urinary system are the 3 execretory systems in the body.
    1. Every cell in the body takes in nutrients and gives off waste. Cellular waste is carbon dioxide, water, nitrogen and anything it can't use.
    2. Skin gets rid of waste water, salts and waste.
    3. The lungs in the respiratory system get rid of excess water and carbon dioxide.
    4. The urinary system is the main execretory system and filters nitrogen and ammonia out of the blood and includes: 2 kidneys, 2 ureters, 1 urinary bladder and 1 urethra.
      i) Kidneys filter ammonia, nitrogen and other waste products from the blood from millions of structures called nephrons.
      ii) Urine is the primary waste product from the urinary system.
      iii) Nephrons filter 7.5 liters of plasma every hour.
      iv) Urine is being created all the time. It is collected in the urinary bladder and eliminated after pressure receptors tell the brain it is time 'to go'.
      v) Kidneys regulate whether the body should conserve or release water.
      vi) 8 glasses of water a day should be consumed to maintain blood filtration and kidney health.


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